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1. Alexander Zinoviev, Les confessions dun homme en trop (Paris: Olivier Orban, 1990), pp. 104, 188, 120. Humo interview, 25 February 1993, pp. 48--49.

2. Mao Tsetung, Speech at the Second Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Selected Works of Mao Tsetung (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1977), vol. 5, p. 341.

1. Ludo Martens, LURSS et la contre-revolution de velours (Antwerp: EPO, 1991).

2. Ibid. , p. 215.

3. Ibid. , p. 186.

4. Ibid. , p. 253.

5. Ibid. , p. 245.

6. Patrice de Beer, La lente erosion. Le Monde, 7 August 1991.

7. Marcel Niedergang, Le Monde.

8. International Herald Tribune, 5 November 1991, p. 1.

9. Jose Maria Sison, Statement of Denial and Condemnation. 8 December 1992.

10. Democratic Palestine, July--August--September 1992, p. 31.

1

1. Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Soviet Communism: A New Civilisation? second edition (London: Victor Gollancz, 1937), p. 236.

2. Ibid. , p. 531.

3. Alexander Kerensky, Russia and Historys Turning Point (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1965), p. 220.

4. Ibid. , p. 248.

5. Ibid. , p. 277.

6. Ian Grey, Stalin: Man of History (New York: Doubleday & Co, 1979).

7. Ibid. , pp. 14--18.

8. Grey, op. cit. , pp. 20--21. Robert H. McNeal, Stalin: Man and Ruler (New York: New York University Press, 1988), p. 9.

9. Grey, op. cit. , pp. 22--24.

10. Leon Trotsky, My Life (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970), p. 506.

11. Grey, op. cit. , pp. 29--31.

12. Ibid. , p. 32.

13. Ibid. , pp. 34--35.

14. Ibid. , p. 38.

15. Ibid. , pp. 41--45.

16. Ibid. , p. 51.

17. Ibid. , p. 53.

18. Ibid. , pp. 59, 64.

19. Ibid. , pp. 65--69.

20. Ibid. , p. 70.

21. Ibid. , pp. 71--73.

22. Ibid. , pp. 75--79.

23. Ibid. , pp. 88--96.

24. Ibid. , pp. 97--98.

25. Ibid. , pp. 103--104.

26. Trotsky, My Life, p. 512.

27. Ibid. , p. 477.

28. Kerensky, op. cit. , pp. 450--451.

29. Ibid. , pp. 479--480.

30. Ibid. , pp. 492, 500--501, 506--507.

31. Webb, op. cit. , pp. 536--537.

32. Jane Burbank, Intelligentsia and Revolution: Russian Views of Bolshevism, 1917--1922 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 13, 36, 42, 44.

33. Grey, op. cit. , p. 105.

34. Ibid. , pp. 106--109.

35. Ibid. , pp. 115--117.

36. Ibid. , pp. 121--127.

37. McNeal, op. cit. , p. 157.

38. Grey, op. cit. , pp. 128--129.

39. Ibid. , pp. 129--130.

40. Ibid. , p. 131.

41. Ibid. , pp. 132--133.

42. Ibid. , pp. 135--136.

43. Ibid. , p. 139.

44. Leon Trotsky, Stalin: An appraisal of the man and his influence (New York: Harper & Brother Publishers, 1941), p. 333.

45. McNeal, op. cit. , p. 63.

46. V. I. Lenin, The Trade Unions, the Present Situation, and Trotskys Mistakes (30 December 1920). Collected Works (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1960--1970), vol. 32, pp. 19--42.

47. Grey, op. cit. , p. 151.

48. Lenin, Closing Speech on the Political Report of the Central Committee of the R.C.P.(B.). (28 March 1922). Works, vol. 33, p. 315.

49. Grey, p. 159.

50. Ibid. , p. 171.

51. Ibid. , p. 172.

52. Ibid. , p. 173.

53. Trotsky, Stalin, p. 374.

54. Henri Bernard, Le communisme et laveuglement occidental (Soumagne, Belgium: Editions Andre Grisard, 1982), p. 48.

55. Quoted in Stalin, The Trotskyist Opposition Before and Now. Works (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954), pp. 179--180. Stalins emphasis.

56. Trotsky, My Life, p. 469.

57. Lenin, Letter to the Congress. Works, vol. 36, pp. 593--594.

58. Ibid. , pp. 594--595.

59. Trotsky, My Life, p. 506.

60. Ibid. , pp. 479--480.

61. Grey, op. cit. , p. 176.

62. Fotieva, Souvenirs sur Lenine (Moscow: Editions Moscou, n.d.), pp. 152--153.

63. Lenin, Letter to the Congress, p. 596.

64. Fotieva, op. cit. , pp. 173--174.

65. Trotsky, Stalin, p. 374.

66. Grey, op. cit. , p. 179.

67. Ibid. .

68. Fotieva, op. cit. , p. 175.

69. Trostky, Stalin, p. 375.

70. Stalin, The Trotskyist Opposition Before and Now, p. 178.

71. Ibid. , pp. 180--181.

72. Trotsky, Stalin, p. 372.

73. Ibid. , p. 376.

74. Ibid. , p. 381.

75. Ibid. , p. 376.

76. Ibid.

77. Ibid. , p. 377.

78. Bernard, op. cit. , p. 53.

79. Ibid. , p. 381.

2

1. Lenin, Our Foreign and Domestic Position and the Tasks of the Party. Works, vol. 31, p. 419.

2. Ibid. , p. 420.

3. Lenin, On Co-operation II. Works, vol. 33, pp. 472--475.

4. Lenin, On Co-operation I. Works, vol. 33, p. 468.

5. Lenin, Speech at a Plenary Session of the Moscow Soviet. Works, vol. 33, p. 437.

6. Ibid. , p. 443.

7. Leon Trotsky, Results and Prospects. The Permanent Revolution & Results and Prospects (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1969), p. 35.

8. Ibid. , pp. 76--77.

9. Ibid. , pp. 104--105.

10. Ibid. , p. 115.

11. Ibid. , p. 108.

12. Quoted in Stalin, The October Revolution and the Tactics of the Russian Communists. Leninism: Selected Writings (New York: International Publishers, 1942), p. 15. Stalins emphasis.

13. Trotsky, Postscript 1922, What is A Peace Programme? (Columbo, Ceylon: Lanka Samasamaja, 1956), pp. 20-21. Also partially quoted in Stalin, The October Revolution, p. 21.

14. Trotsky, Nos taches politiques (Paris: Pierre Belfond, 1970), pp. 39--41, 128, 159, 195, 198, 204.

15. Ibid. , pp. 97, 170.

16. Ibid. , p. 160.

17. Ibid. , p. 103.

18. Ibid. , p. 128.

19. Leon Trotsky, The New Course. The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1923--1925) (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1975), pp. 71, 128.

20. Trotsky, Nos taches, pp. 140--141.

21. Trotsky, The New Course, p. 71.

22. Trotsky, Nos taches, pp. 192, 195, 204.

23. Trotsky, The New Course, p. 72.

24. Trotsky, Nos taches, p. 190.

25. Trotsky, The New Course, pp. 126--127.

3

1. Stalin, The Tasks of Business Executives. Leninism, p. 200.

2. Hiroaki Kuromiya, Stalins Industrial Revolution: Politics and Workers, 1928--1932 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 115, 319.

3. Ibid. , p. 290.

4. Ibid. , p. 306.

5. Anna Louise Strong, The Stalin Era (Publisher unknown, 1956), p. 33.

6. Webb, op. cit. , p. 810.

7. Ibid. , pp. 810--811.

8. Strong, op. cit. , pp. 28--29.

9. Kuromiya, op. cit. , p. 145.

10. John Scott, Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russias city of steel, enlarged edition (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press), pp. 256--257.

11. Kuromiya, op. cit. , pp. 305--306.

12. Ibid. , p. 316.

13. Scott, op. cit. , pp. 175--180.

14. Ibid. , pp. 195--196.

15. Ibid. , pp. 253--254.

16. Kuromiya, op. cit. , p. 287.

17. Lenin, Our Foreign and Domestic Position and the Tasks of the Party. Works, vol. 31, p. 419.

18. LOffice central de statistique pres le Conseil des ministres de lU.R.S.S. Les Progres du pouvoir sovietique depuis 40 ans en chiffres: Recueil statistique (Moscow: Editions en langues etrangeres, 1958), p. 75.

19. Ibid. , p. 26.

20. Ibid. , p. 30.

21. Kuromiya, op. cit. , pp. 304--305.

22. Progres, op. cit. , p. 26.

23. Ibid. , p. 31.

4

1. R. W. Davies, The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia I: The Socialist Offensive; The Collectivisation of Soviet Agriculture, 1929--1930 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980), pp. 4--5.

2. Ibid. , pp. 16--18.

3. Lynne Viola, The Best Sons of the Fatherland: Workers in the Vanguard of Soviet Collectivisation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 22.

4. Ibid. , p. 13.

5. Davies, op. cit. , p. 51.

6. Ibid. , p. 54.

7. Ibid. , p. 52.

8. Ibid. , p. 53.

9. Viola, op. cit. , pp. 19, 22.

10. Emile Joseph Dillon, quoted in Webb, op. cit. , p. 809.

11. Ibid. , pp. 808--809.

12. Jean Elleinstein, Le socialisme dans un seul pays (Paris: Editions Sociales, 1973), vol. 2, pp. 67--69. Davies, opcit, pp. 9, 171.

13. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 25--26.

14. Ibid. , p. 17.

15. Stalin, On the Grain Front. Leninism, p. 59.

16. Davies, op. cit. , p. 27.

17. Stalin, Problems of Agrarian Policy in the U.S.S.R. Leninism, p. 155.

18. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 29--30.

19. Ibid. , pp. 31, 419.

20. Ibid. , p. 32.

21. Ibid. , p. 33.

22. Ibid. , p. 34.

23. Ibid. , p. 41.

24. Ibid. , p. 38.

25. Webb, op. cit. , p. 245, n. 1.

26. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 46, 49--50. Nicolai Boukharine, uvres choisies en un volume (Moscow: Editions du Progres, 1988), p. 424.

27. G. Bourdiougov and V. Kozlov, Episodes dune biographie politique. Introduction to Boukharine, op. cit. , p. 15.

28. Ibid. , p. 16.

29. Stalin, The Right Danger. Leninism, p. 79.

30. Davies, op. cit. , p. 47.

31. Stalin, The Right Danger, pp. 95, 99.

32. Bourdiougov and Kozlov, op. cit. , pp. 26--27.

33. Stepniak, quoted in Webb, op. cit. , pp. 563--564.

34. Dillon, quoted in Webb, op. cit. , p. 565.

35. Davies, op. cit. , p. 109.

36. Viola, op. cit. , p. 27.

37. Stalin, Problems of Agrarian Policy in the U.S.S.R., p. 163.

38. Ibid. , pp. 145, 163.

39. Davies, op. cit. , p. 112.

40. Ibid. , p. 121.

41. Ibid.

42. Viola, op. cit. , p. 91.

43. Ibid. , pp. 93--94.

44. Davies, op. cit. , p. 218.

45. Ibid. , p. xx.

46. Ibid. , p. 173.

47. Ibid. , p. 274.

48. Ibid. , p. 160.

49. Viola, op. cit. , pp. 215--216.

50. Ibid. , p. 216.

51. Ibid. , p. 215.

52. Ibid. , p. 29.

53. Davies, op. cit. , p. 226.

54. Viola, op. cit. , p. 29.

55. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 225--226.

56. Ibid. , p. 205.

57. Ibid. , p. 206.

58. Ibid. , pp. 206--207.

59. Viola, op. cit. , p. 211.

60. Ibid. , p. 103.

61. Ibid.

62. Ibid. , p. 109.

63. Ibid. , p. 141.

64. Ibid. , p. 135.

65. Ibid. , p. 154.

66. Ibid. , p. 172.

67. Ibid. , p. 216.

68. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 152--153.

69. Ibid. , p. 154.

70. Ibid. , p. 155.

71. Ibid. , pp. 161--162.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid. , p. 165.

74. Robert H. McNeal, editor, Resolutions and decisions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Volume 3, The Stalin Years: 1929--1953 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974), p. 23.

75. Ibid. , p. 29.

76. Ibid. , p. 27.

77. Ibid. , p. 25.

78. Ibid. , p. 29.

79. Ibid.

80. Ibid.

81. Ibid. , pp. 30--31.

82. Ibid. , p. 34.

83. Ibid. , p. 28.

84. Ibid. , p. 37.

85. Ibid. , pp. 40--43.

86. Ibid. , pp. 40--41.

87. Ibid. , p. 42.

88. Ibid. , p. 41.

89. Ibid. , p. 42.

90. Ibid. , p. 43.

91. Davies, op. cit. , p. 62.

92. Viola, op. cit. , p. 154.

93. Viola, op. cit. , p. 154. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 212--213.

94. Davies, op. cit. , p. 221.

95. Ibid. , pp. 138--139.

96. Ibid. , p. 140.

97. Ibid. , pp. 140--141.

98. Ibid. , p. 144.

99. Ibid. , p. 145.

100. Ibid. , p. 183.

101. Ibid. , p. 184.

102. McNeal, op. cit. , pp. 41--42.

103. Charles Bettelheim. Leconomie sovietique (Paris: Editions Recueil Sirey, 1950), p. 87.

104. Davies, op. cit. , p. 228.

105. Ibid. , pp. 232--233.

106. Ibid. , p. 231.

107. Ibid. , p. 233.

108. Ibid. , pp. 235--236.

109. Ibid. , p. 228.

110. Ibid. , pp. 258--259.

111. Ibid. , pp. 247--248.

112. Karl Kautsky, Bolshevism at a Deadlock (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1931), pp. 97--98.

113. Ibid. , p. 150.

114. Ibid. , pp. 139--140.

115. Ibid. , p. 124.

116. Ibid. , p. 173.

117. Davies, op. cit. , pp. 262--263, 442.

118. Ibid. , p. 239.

119. Ibid. , p. 240.

120. Ibid. , p. 265.

121. Ibid. , p. 264.

122. Stalin, Dizzy with Success: Problems of the Collective Farm Movement. Leninism, p. 170.

123. Ibid. , p. 171.

124. Ibid. , pp. 171--172.

125. Ibid. , p. 172.

126. Davies, op. cit. , p. 273.

127. Ibid. , pp. 280--281.

128. Ibid. , p. 271.

129. Viola, op. cit. , p. 116.

130. Stalin, Dizzy with Success, p. 169.

131. Davies, op. cit. , p. 281.

132. Ibid. , p. 276.

133. Ibid. , p. 280.

134. Ibid. , pp. 319--320.

135. Ibid. , p. 300.

136. Ibid. , p. 375.

137. Ibid. , pp. 322--323.

138. Ibid. , pp. 325--327.

139. Ibid. , pp. 327--328.

140. Ibid. , pp. 335--336.

141. Ibid. , pp. 442--443, Table 17.

142. Ibid. , pp. 285--286, 288.

143. Ibid. , p. 251.

144. Ibid. , p. 419.

145. Ibid. , pp. 337--339.

146. Ibid. , pp. 360--361.

147. Ibid. , pp. 369--370.

148. Ibid. , p. 369.

149. Ibid. , p. 371.

150. Ibid. , p. 358.

151. Ibid. , pp. 378--379.

152. Ibid. , p. 380.

153. Ibid. , pp. 441--442.

154. Bettelheim, op. cit. , p. 66.

155. R. W. Davies, The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia II: The Soviet Collective Farm, 1929--1930 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980), pp. 13--14.

156. Bettelheim, op. cit. , p. 73.

157. Davies, op. cit. , p. 15.

158. Ibid. , pp. 20--21.

159. Ibid. , pp. 25, 27.

160. Ibid. , pp. 16--18.

161. Ibid. , p. 28--29.

162. Ibid. , pp. 29, 32.

163. Bettelheim, op. cit. , pp. 102, 112.

164. Ibid. , pp. 61--65.

165. Ibid. , pp. 67--68.

166. Ibid. , pp. 76--78.

167. Progres, op. cit. , p. 142.

168. Bettelheim, op. cit. , p. 74.

169. Ibid.

170. Ibid. , p. 82.

171. Ibid. , p. 89.

172. Ibid. , p. 93.

173. Ibid. , p. 113, n. 1.

174. Ibid. , p. 83, 90.

175. Ibid. , p. 85.

176. Ibid. , pp. 113--114.

177. Zinoviev, op. cit. , p. 53.

178. Ibid. , p. 56.

179. Ibid. , p. 236.

180. Stefan Merl, ,,Ausrottung der Bourgeoisie und der Kulaken in Sowjetruss land? Geschichte und Gesellschaft 13 (1987), p. 368.

181. Ibid. , p. 376.

182. Merl, op. cit. , p. 377.

183. Ibid.

184. Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivisation and the Terror-Famine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 306. Stefan Merl, Wie viele Opfer forderte die ,,Liquidierung der Kulaken als Klasse? Geschichte und Gesellschaft 14 (1988), p. 534.

185. Ibid. , p. 535.

186. Ibid. , p. 537.

187. Nicolas Werth, Goulag: les vrais chiffres. LHistoire 169 (September 1993), pp. 38--51. More details can be found in J. Arch Getty, Gabor T. Rittersporn and Viktor N. Zemskov. Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence. The America Historical Review, October 1993, pp. 1017--1049.

188. Werth, op. cit. , p. 44.

189. Conquest, op. cit. , p. 306.

190. Time, 18 October 1993, European edition, p. 50. Translated from the French translation.

5

1. Douglas Tottle, Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard (Toronto: Progress Books, 1987), pp. 5--6.

2. The Nation 140 (36), 13 March 1935, quoted in Tottle, op. cit. , p. 8.

3. Tottle, op. cit. , p. 9.

4. James Casey, Daily Worker, 21 February 1935, quoted in Tottle, op. cit. , p. 9.

5. Tottle, op. cit. , pp. 13, 15.

6. Ibid. , pp. 19--21.

7. Ibid. , pp. 23--24.

8. Ibid. , p. 25.

9. Ibid. , pp. 4--31.

10. Ibid. , pp. 38--44.

11. Ibid. , p. 41.

12. New York Times, quoted in Tottle, op. cit. , p. 50.

13. Tottle, op. cit. , p. 51.

14. Ibid. , p. 61.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid. , pp. 69--71.

17. Ibid. , p. 71.

18. Ibid. , p. 74.

19. Ibid. , p. 79.

20. Ibid. , p. 86.

21. Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow, op. cit. , p. 334.

22. Tottle, op. cit. , pp. 111-112.

23. Ibid. , p. 112.

24. Ibid. , p. 113.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid. , p. 115.

27. Ibid. , p. 118.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid. , pp. 121--122.

30. Ibid. , p. 122.

31. Ibid. , p. 128.

32. Ibid. , p. 129.

33. Ibid. , pp. 58--59.

34. J. Arch Getty, Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933--1938 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 5.

35. Tottle, op. cit. , pp. 93--94.

36. Ibid. , p. 94.

37. Ibid. , p. 91.

38. Ibid. , p. 92.

39. Ibid. , p. 96.

40. Ibid. , p. 97.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid. , p. 100.

43. Ibid. , p. 99.

44. Ibid. , p. 101.

45. Ibid.

46. Alexei Fyodorov, The Underground Committee Carries On (Moscow: Progress Publishers).

6

1. Trotsky, The New Course, p. 72.

2. Trotsky, The New Course, p. 85.

3. Trotsky, Lettres aux travailleurs dURSS (May 1940). La lutte antibureaucratique en URSS II: La revolution necessaire 1933--1940 (Paris: Union generale deditions, 1975), pp. 301--302.

4. Lenin, Eleventh Congress of the R.C.P.(B.). Works. vol. 33, p. 283.

5. Stalin, Speech delivered at the Eighth Congress of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. Selected Works, p. 286.

6. Ibid. , p. 287.

7. Ibid. , p. 288.

8. Getty, op. cit. , p. 22.

9. On Deficiencies in Party Work and Measures for Liquidating Trotskyites and Other Double Dealers. McNeal, op. cit. , p. 183.

10. Ibid. , p. 99.

11. Stalin, Address to the Graduates of the Red Army Academies. Leninism, p. 364.

12. Getty, op. cit. , p. 105.

13. The Preparation of Party Organizations for Elections to the USSR Supreme Soviet under the New Electoral System and the Corresponding Reorganization of Party Political Work (27 February 1937). McNeal, p. 187.

14. Ibid. , p. 158.

15. Ibid. , p. 162.

16. Ibid. , p. 164.

7

1. Bernard, op. cit. , pp. 50, 52--53.

2. Gabor Tamas Rittersporn, Stalinist Simplifications and Soviet Complications: Social Tensions and Political Conflict in the USSR, 1933--1953 (Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1991), p. 23.

3. Ibid. , pp. 1--2.

4. Ibid. , p. 23.

5. J. V. Stalin, Report and Speech in Reply to Debate at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (3--5 March 1937). Works (London: Red Star Press, 1976), vol. 14, p. 241.

6. Ibid. , pp. 242--243.

7. Ibid. , p. 264.

8. Boris Bajanov, Avec Staline dans le Kremlin (Paris: Les Editions de France, 1930), pp. 2--3.

9. Ibid. , p. 7.

10. Ibid. , pp. 4--5.

11. George Solomon, Parmi les maitres rouges, Serie Anticommuniste du Centre International de Lutte Active Contre le Communisme (Paris: Editions Spes, 1930), p. 19.

12. Ibid. , p 36.

13. Ibid. , p. 19.

14. Ibid. , pp. 36--37.

15. Ibid. , p. 348.

16. Ibid. , p. 351.

17. Bajanov, op. cit. , pp. 105--109.

18. G. A. Tokaev, Comrade X (London: The Harvill Press, 1956), p. 33.

19. Zinoviev, op. cit. , p. 105.

20. Ibid. , p. 104.

21. Ibid. , p. 126.

22. Ibid. , pp. 110, 118.

23. Ibid. , pp. 111, 113.

24. Ibid. , p. 115.

25. Ibid. , pp. 118, 120.

26. Ibid. , p. 122.

27. Ibid. , p. 116.

28. Edward Hallett Carr. Foundations of a Planned Economy, 1926--1929, Volume 2 (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1971), pp. 7, 10--12, 20.

29. Ibid. , pp. 28--29.

30. Ibid. , p. 42.

31. Ibid. , p. 49.

32. Ibid. , p. 60.

33. Ibid. , p. 67.

34. Ibid. , p. 65.

35. Ibid. , p. 73, n. 3.

36. Getty, op. cit. , p. 94.

37. Stalin, Report to the Seventeenth Party Congress on the Work of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U.(B.). Selected Works, p. 404.

38. Stalin, Instead of a Reply to the Discussion, Works, vol. 13, p. 404.

39. Stalin, Report, op. cit. , pp. 405--406.

40. Ibid. , p. 207.

41. Ibid. , pp. 95, 111-112, 115--116.

42. Ibid. , p. 119; p. 245, n. 20.

43. Ibid. , pp. 119--120.

44. Leon Trotsky, Are There No Limits to the Fall? A Summary of the Thirteenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (18 January 1934). Writings of Leon Trotsky (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1973), vol. 6, p. 210.

45. Ibid. , p. 215.

46. Leon Trotsky, Que signifie la capitulation de Rakovsky? (31 March 1934). La lutte, pp. 59--60.

47. Trotsky, Are There No Limits to the Fall?, p. 212.

48. Ibid. , p. 216.

49. Ibid. , p. 217.

50. Ibid. , p. 211.

51. Trotsky, On the Eve of the Seventeenth Congress (20 January 1934). Writings, vol. 6, pp. 223-224.

52. Trotsky, The Stalinist Bureaucracy and the Kirov Assassination: A Reply to Friends in America (28 December 1934). Writings, vol. 7, p. 116.

53. Nikita S. Khrushchev. The Crimes of the Stalin Era: Special Report to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Secret Report). The New Leader (New York), 1957, p. S32.

54. Trotsky, The Stalinist Bureaucracy and the Kirov Assassination, p. 117.

55. Ibid. , pp. 121--122.

56. Leon Trotsky, Pour sa propre sauvegarde, la bureaucratie entretient la terreur (26 September 1935). Lappareil policier du stalinisme (Paris: Union generale deditions, 1976), pp. 85--87.

57. Getty, op. cit. , p. 123.

58. Tokaev, op. cit. , pp. 60--61.

59. Getty, op. cit. , pp. 121--122.

60. John D. Littlepage and Demaree Bess, In Search of Soviet Gold (London: George E. Harrap & Co., 1939), pp. 188-189.

61. Ibid. , pp. 89--94.

62. Ibid. , pp. 97--101.

63. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S32.

64. Littlepage and Bess, op. cit. , pp. 106--107.

65. Ibid. , p. 111.

66. Ibid. , pp. 112--114.

67. Ibid. , pp. 274--275.

68. Ibid. , pp. 95--96.

69. Peoples Commissariat of Justice of the U.S.S.R. Report of Court Proceedings in the Case of the Anti-Soviet Trotskyite Centre (Moscow, 1937), pp. 21--27.

70. Littlepage and Bess, op. cit. , p. 102.

71. Scott, op. cit. , p. 184.

72. Ibid. , pp. 188--189.

73. Stalin, Report and Speech in Reply to Debate at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U., p. 241.

74. Ibid. , p. 264.

75. Khrushchev, op. cit. , p. S24.

76. Stalin, op. cit. , p. 278.

77. Ibid. , p. 280.

78. Ibid. , pp. 279--280.

79. Ibid. , p. 296.

80. Ibid. , p. 294.

81. Ibid. , pp. 292--293.

82. Ibid. , pp. 282--283.

83. Stephen F. Cohen. Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888--1938 (New York: Vintage Books, 1975), p. 343.

84. Nouvelles de Moscou 21, 27 May 1990.

85. Peoples Commissariat of Justice of the U.S.S.R. Report of Court Proceedings in the Case of the Anti-Soviet Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites (Moscow, 1938), p. 390.

86. Cohen, op. cit. , p. 352.

87. Ibid. , p. 355.

88. Ibid. , p. 356.

89. Ibid. , p. 354.

90. Ibid. , p. 362.

91. Ibid. , pp. 361, 363.

92. Yannick Blanc and David Kaisergruber, Laffaire Boukharine ou Le recours de la memoire (Paris: Francois Maspero, 1979), p. 64.

93. Ibid. , p. 79.

94. Ibid. , p. 65.

95. Ibid. , p. 64.

96. Ibid. , pp. 64--65.

97. Cohen, op. cit. , p. 365.

98. Blanc and Kaisergruber, op. cit. , p. 72.

99. Ibid. , pp. 75--76.

100. Ibid. , pp. 72--73.

101. Ibid. , p. 76.

102. Tokaev, op. cit. , p. 43.

103. Ibid. , p. 61.

104. Ibid. , p. 86.

105. Court Proceedings ... Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites, op. cit. , pp. 377--378.

106. Tokaev, op. cit. , p. 159.

107. Ibid. , pp. 68--69.

108. Ibid. , p. 85.

109. Ibid. , pp. 174--175.

110. Ibid. , p. 187.

111. Ibid. , p. 188.

112. Joseph E. Davies, Mission to Moscow, (New York: Garden City Publishing Co., 1943), p. 163.

113. Tokaev, p. 96.

114. Ibid.

115. Ibid. , p. 98.

116. Court Proceedings ... Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites, , op. cit. , p. 429.

117. Ibid. , pp. 432--433.

118. Cohen, op. cit. , p. 372.

119. Ibid. , pp. 375--376.

120. Court Proceedings ... Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites, , op. cit. , pp. 380--381.

121. Ibid. , p. 381.

122. Ibid. , p. 382.

123. Ibid. , p. 386.

124. Ibid.

125. Ibid. , pp. 387--388.

126. Ibid. , p. 388.

127. Ibid. , pp. 388--389.

128. Ibid. , pp. 390--391.

129. Ibid. , p. 391.

130. Ibid. , p. 393.

131. Ibid. , p. 419.

132. Ibid. , p. 425.

133. Ibid. , p. 430.

134. Ibid. , pp. 431--432.

135. Ibid. , pp. 776--779.

136. Cohen, op. cit. , p. 381.

137. Ibid. , p. 382.

138. Ken Coates, The Case of Nikolai Bukharin (Nottingham: Spokesman, 1978).

139. Blanc and Kaisergruber, op. cit. , pp. 11, 16.

140. Cohen, op. cit. , p. 384.

141. Ibid. , p. 386.

142. Getty, op. cit. , p. 167.

143. Carr, op. cit. , p. 325.

144. Ibid. , p. 327.

145. Ibid. , p. 320.

146. Ibid. , p. 331.

147. Ibid. , p. 317.

148. Getty, op. cit. , p. 255, n. 84.

149. Alexander Werth, quoted in Harpal Brar, Perestroika: The Complete Collapse of Revisionism (London: Harpal Brar, 1992), p. 161.

150. Joseph Davies, op. cit. , p. 99.

151. Ibid. , p. 103.

152. Alexander Uralov (Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov), The Reign of Stalin (Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Press, p. 1975), p. 50.

153. Robert Coulondre, De Staline a Hitler: Souvenirs de deux ambassades, 1936--1939 (Paris: Hachette, 1950), pp. 182--184.

154. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), pp. 288--289.

155. I. Deutscher, Stalin: A Political Biography, second edition (London: Oxford University Press, 1967), p. 379.

156. Ibid. , p. x, n. 1.

157. Louise Narvaez, Degrelle ma dit, Postface by Degrelle (Brussels: Editions du Baucens, 1977), pp. 360--361.

158. J. Gobbels, Tagebucher aus den Jahren 1942--1943, (Zurich, 1948), p. 322. Quoted in Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, La seconde guerre mondiale: caracteres fondamentaux de la politique et de la strategie, vol. 1, pp. 213--214.

159. F. Chueva, Sto sorok besed s MOLOTOVYM (One hundred forty conversations with Molotov) (Moscow: Terra, 1991), p. 413.

160. Roman Kolkowicz, The Soviet Military and the Communist Party (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 343--344.

161. Ibid. , p. 344.

162. E. H. Cookridge, Gehlen: Spy of the Century (New York: Random House, 1972), pp. 57--58.

163. Vlasov and Vlasovites. New Times 44 (1990), pp. 36--40.

164. Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, 1918--1956. An Experiment in Literary Investigation I--II (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), p. 253, note.

165. A. M. Vasilevsky, A Lifelong Cause (Moscow: Progress, 1973), pp. 139--141.

166. Solzhenitsyn, op. cit. , p. 255.

167. Ibid. , pp. 258--259.

168. Ibid. , p. 261.

169. Ibid. , pp. 256--257.

170. Tokaev, op. cit. , pp. 83--84.

171. Ibid. , p. 1.

172. Ibid. , p. 5.

173. Ibid. , p. 220.

174. Ibid. , p. 75.

175. Ibid. , p. 8.

176. Ibid. , p. 45.

177. Ibid. , p. 15.

178. Ibid. , p. 21.

179. Ibid. , p. 160.

180. Ibid. , p. 17.

181. Ibid. , p. 189.

182. Ibid. , p. 274.

183. Ibid. , p. 17.

184. Ibid. , p. 6.

185. Ibid. , p. 118.

186. Ibid. , p. 22.

187. Ibid. , p. 215.

188. Ibid. , p. 28.

189. Ibid. , pp. 9, 47.

190. Ibid. , p. 84.

191. Ibid. , pp. 74--75.

192. Ibid. , p. 6.

193. Ibid. , pp. 17--18.

194. Ibid. , p. 20.

195. Ibid. , p. 22.

196. Ibid. , p. 7.

197. Ibid. , p. 63.

198. Ibid. , p. 2.

199. Ibid. , p. 37.

200. Ibid. , pp. 48--49.

201. Ibid. , p. 48.

202. Ibid. , p. 34.

203. Ibid. , p. 64.

204. Ibid. , p. 156.

205. Ibid. , pp. 156--157.

206. Ibid. , p. 159--160.

207. Ibid. , p. 183.

208. Ibid. , p. 188.

209. Ibid. , p. 352.

210. Getty, op. cit. , p. 137.

211. Ibid. , p. 155.

212. Ibid. , p. 162.

213. Ibid. , pp. 170--171.

214. Ibid. , p. 178.

215. Ibid.

216. Ibid. , p. 177.

217. Ibid. , p. 185.

218. On Errors of Party Organizations in Expelling Communists from the Party, on Formal Bureaucratic Attitudes toward the Appeals of Those Expelled from the VKP(b), and on Measures to Eliminate These Short-comings (18 January 1938). McNeal, op. cit. , p. 188.

219. Ibid. , pp. 190--192.

220. Khrushchev, Secret Report, p. S26.

221. Ibid. , p. 194.

222. Tokaev, op. cit. , p. 119.

223. Ibid. , p. 101.

224. Nouvelles de Moscou 26 (30 June 1992), p. 15.

225. Rittersporn, op. cit. , p. 12.

226. Getty, op. cit. , p. 176.

227. Ibid. , p. 190.

228. Rittersporn, op. cit. , p. 12.

229. Getty, op. cit. , pp. 257--258, n. 16.

230. Conquest's figures and those that refute his claims all come from Nicolas Werth, Goulag: les vrais chiffres, op. cit. . See also Getty, Rittersporn and Zemskov, op. cit. .

231. Roy A. Medvedev and Zhores A. Medvedev, Khrushchev: The Years in Power (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976), p. 19.

232. Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Failure (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1989), p. 89.

233. Ibid. , p. 176.

234. Ibid. , p. 206.

235. Peter Dodge, Beyond Marxism: The Faith and Works of Hendrik de Man (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966), pp. 196--197.

236. Henri Amouroux, Quarante millions de petainistes (Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1977).

8

1. Bernard, op. cit. , p. 9.

2. Ibid. , p. 121.

3. Ibid. , p. 123.

4. Ibid. , p. 11.

5. Ibid. , pp. 48--50.

6. Trotsky, Thermidor et l'antisemitisme (22 February 1937). La lutte, pp. 143--144.

7. Trotsky, The World Situation and Perspectives (14 February 1940). Writings, vol. 12, pp. 148--149.

8. P. J. S. Serrarens, La Russie et lOccident (Utrecht: Confederation Internationale des Syndicats Chretiens, n.d.), pp. 33, 37.

9. Trotsky, The World Situation, p. 148.

10. Ibid. , p. 149.

11. Ibid. , p. 149.

12. Trotsky, La capitulation de Staline (11 March 1939). La lutte, p. 216.

13. Trotsky, Cain Dugachvili va jusquau bout (April 1938). Lappareil, p. 238.

14. Trotsky, La capitulation de Staline, p. 216.

15. Trotsky, Nouvelles defections (17 March 1938). La lutte, pp. 161--162.

16. Trotsky, On the Eve of World War II (23 July 1939). Writings, vol. 12, p. 18.

17. Trotsky, Staline et Hitler (12 March 1938). Lappareil, p. 234.

18. Trotsky, L'armee contre Staline (6 March 1938). Lappareil, pp. 197, 201.

19. Trotsky, On the Eve of World War II, p. 19.

20. Trotsky, Les defaitistes totalitaires (3 July 1939). La lutte, pp. 166--169.

21. Trotsky, A Political Dialogue, pp. 156, 158.

22. Trotsky, Stalin After the Finnish Experience (13 March 1940). Writings, vol. 12, p. 160.

23. Trotsky, Lettres aux travailleurs dURSS (May 1940). La lutte, pp. 301--302.

24. Trotsky, The Twenty-First Anniversary (14 November 1938). Writings, vol. 11, p. 111.

25. Tokaev, op. cit. , p. 188.

26. Trotsky, Le gouvernement sovietique applique-t-il toujours les principes definis il y a vingt ans? (13 January 1938). La lutte, pp. 159--160.

27. Trotsky, A Fresh Lesson: After the Imperialist Peace at Munich (10 October 1938). Writings, vol. 11, p. 68.

28. Trotsky, Cain Dougachvili va jusquau bout, p. 238.

29. Trotsky, Les defaitistes totalitaires, pp. 165, 169.

30. Leon Trotsky, The Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International. The Transitional Program for Socialist Revolution (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1974), p. 103.

31. Ibid. , pp. 103--106.

32. Ibid. , p. 105.

33. Trotsky, Lettres aux travailleurs dURSS, p. 303.

9

1. Stalin, Works, vol. 13, p. 309.

2. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R., Documents and Materials Relating to the Eve of the Second World War (New York: International Publishers, 1948). vol. 1, p. 271.

3. Ibid. , vol. 2, pp. 110--111.

4. Harold L. Ickes, The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1954), p. 705.

5. Sipols and Kharmalov, A la veille de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Moscow: Editions Novosti, 1973), p. 262.

6. Grigori Deborine, Les secrets de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Moscow: Editions du Progres, 1972), p. 35.

7. Winston S. Churchill, op. cit. , p. 449.

8. Cited in La grande guerre nationale de lUnion sovietique (Moscow: Editions du Progres, 1974), p. 20.

9. G. Zhukov, The Memoirs of Marshal Zhukov (London: Jonathan Cape, 1971), p. 171.

10. Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres de Finlande, Documents sur les relations finno-sovietiques (Paris: Editions Flammarion, 1940), pp. 93--95, 109.

11. Jacobsen, op. cit. , vol. 1, p. 118.

12. Pavel Zhiline, Ambitions et meprises du Troisieme Reich, (Moscow: Editions du Progres, 1972), p. 74.

13. Bernard Serrigny, L'Allemagne face a la guerre totale (Paris: Editions Grasset, 1940), p. 228.

14. Falsificateurs de l'Histoire (Brussels: Editions ABS, 1948), p. 118.

15. Petite encyclopedie politique du monde (Rio de Janeiro: Editions Chanteclair, 1943), p. 136.

16. Khrushchev, Secret Report, pp. S36, S38.

17. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 107.

18. Ibid. , p. 137.

19. Ibid. , pp. 107.

20. Ibid. , p. 138.

21. Ibid. , p. 139.

22. Ibid. , p. 140.

23. La grande guerre nationale, op. cit. , p. 33.

24. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 191.

25. Zhukov, op. cit. , pp. 198--199. La grande guerre nationale, op. cit. , p. 33.

26. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 201. La grande guerre nationale, op. cit. , p. 33.

27. Zhukov, op. cit. , pp. 197. La grande guerre nationale, op. cit. , p. 33.

28. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 192.

29. Ibid. , p. 180.

30. Ibid. , p. 170.

31. Ibid. , p. 211.

32. Ibid. , p. 173.

33. Ibid. , p. 184.

34. Ibid. , pp. 185--186.

35. Ibid. , p. 213.

36. Zhiline, op. cit. , p. 212. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 209.

37. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 196.

38. Ibid. , 217--218.

39. Ibid. , p. 225.

40. Ibid. , p. 226.

41. Ibid. , p. 227.

42. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , pp. S36--S37.

43. Ibid. , pp. 37--39.

44. Jean Elleinstein, Staline (Paris: Fayard, 1984), p. 262.

45. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 84.

46. Ibid. , p. 83.

47. Deborine, op. cit. , pp. 73--74.

48. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 224.

49. Sefton Demler, Black Boomerang (London: Secker & Warburg, 1962), pp. 59--60.

50. De Morgen, 23 January 1993, p. 21.

51. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 223.

52. Ibid. , p. 228.

53. Ibid. , pp. 228--229.

54. Ibid. , p. 230.

55. Ibid. , pp. 232--233.

56. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S40.

57. Ibid. , pp. S19--S20.

58. Elleinstein, op. cit. , p. 269.

59. Zhukov, op. cit. , pp 235--236.

60. Ibid. , p. 268.

61. Ibid. , p. 236.

62. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S39.

63. Ibid. , p. 268.

64. Ibid. , p. 238.

65. Ibid. , p. 242.

66. Ibid. , p. 256.

67. Stalin, The German invasion of the Soviet Union. The Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union (New York: International Publishers, 1945), pp. 13--17.

68. Ibid. , p. 275.

69. A. M. Vasilevsky, A Lifelong Cause (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1973), p. 96.

70. Alexandre Beck, La chaussee de Volokolamsk (Paris: Editions Bordas, 1946).

71. Stalin, The twenty-fourth anniversary of the October Revolution, The Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Revolution, pp. 35--38.

72. K. K. Rokossovsky, A Soldiers Duty (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1985), p. 87.

73. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 128.

74. Jacobsen, op. cit. , pp. 119--120.

75. Alan Clark, La Guerre a lEst (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1966), p. 250.

76. Arno Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? The Final Solution in History (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988), p. 349.

77. Clark, op. cit. , p. 251.

78. Mayer, op. cit. , p. 251.

79. Hitler parle a ses generaux (Paris: Albin Michel, 1964), pp. 39--40.

80. Mayer, op. cit. , p. 281.

81. Heinrich Himmler, Discours secrets (Paris: Gallimard, 1978), p. 191.

82. Eremenko, pp. 153--154.

83. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 260.

84. Elleinstein, op. cit. , p. 283.

85. Himmler, op. cit. , p. 205.

86. Ibid. , p. 187.

87. Mayer, op. cit. , p. 234.

88. Ibid. , p. 244.

89. Ibid. , p. 106.

90. Ibid. , p. 101.

91. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941), pp. 450--451.

92. Brzezinski, op. cit. , p. 27.

93. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S36.

94. Ibid. , p. S43.

95. Ibid. , p. S13.

96. Ibid. , p. S34.

97. Elleinstein, op. cit. , pp. 284, 282.

98. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , pp. 91--93.

99. Ibid. , p. 449.

100. Chtemenko, L'Etat-Major general sovietique en guerre (Moscow: Editions du Progres, 1976), vol. 2, p. 319.

101. Zhukov, op. cit. , pp. 267--268.

102. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S38.

103. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 99.

104. Rokossovsky, op. cit. , pp. 118--119.

105. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S40.

106. Ibid. , p. S42.

107. Ibid. , p. S41.

108. Ibid. , p. S40.

109. Elleinstein, op. cit. , p. 285.

110. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 281.

111. Ibid. , p. 282.

112. Chtemenko, op. cit. , p. 354.

113. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 451.

114. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 375.

115. Zhukov, pp. 282--283.

116. Vasilevsky, p. 285.

117. Ibid. .

118. Ibid. , p. 450.

119. Ibid. , p. 159.

120. Ibid. , p. 161.

121. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 283.

122. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 448.

123. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 283.

124. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , p. 452.

125. Ibid. , p. 451.

126. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 284.

127. Khrushchev, Secret Report, pp. S42--S43.

128. W. Averell Harriman and Elie Abel, Special Envoy to Churchill and Stalin: 1941--1946 (New York: Random House, 1975), p. 536.

129. Vasilevsky, op. cit. , pp. 449--450.

130. Ibid. , p. 452.

131. Ibid. , p. 447--448.

132. Zhukov, op. cit. , p. 285.

133. Ibid. , pp. 284--285.

10

1. Staline, Discours 9 fevrier 1946, uvres (Editions NBE, 1975), vol. XIV, pp. 189--191.

2. Ibid. , pp. 193--196.

3. Maurice Dobb, Soviet Economic Development (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. 6th edition, p. 301.

4. Ibid. , p. 313.

5. Bettelheim, op. cit. , pp. 148, 151.

6. Dobb, op. cit. , p. 316.

7. Ibid.

8. Staline, op. cit. , p. 198.

9. E. H. Cookridge, op. cit. , pp. 127--128.

10. Ibid. , p. 122.

11. Ibid. , p. 125.

12. Ibid. , p. 135.

13. Ibid. , pp. 144--145.

14. Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Ratlines: How the Vaticans Nazi networks betrayed Western intelligence to the Soviets (London: Heinemann, 1991), pp. 269--270.

15. Margaret Truman, Harry S. Truman (New York: William Morrow & Company, 1973), p. 273.

16. Ibid. , pp. 275--276.

17. G. Zhukov, Reminiscences and Reflections (Moscow: Progress, 1985), vol. 2, p. 449.

18. Harry S. Truman, Memoirs (New York: Signet Book, 1965), vol. 1, p. 462.

19. Gabriel Kolko, The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy 1943--1945 (New York: Pantheon, 1990), p. 559.

20. Ibid. , p. 560.

21. Truman, Ibid. , p. 466.

22. Deborine, op. cit. , p. 265.

23. Truman, op. cit. , vol. 2, p. 128--129.

24. Ibid. , p. 124.

25. Ibid. , p. 314.

26. Adolph Hitler, Hitler parle a ses generaux (Paris: Editions Albin Michel, 1964), pp. 279, 264, 283.

27. K. K. Rokossovsky, op. cit. , pp. 254--263.

28. Staline, op. cit. , p. 376.

29. Larmee sovietique liberatrice dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Moscow: Editions du Progres, 1977). p.309.

30. Kolko, op. cit. , p. 188.

31. Andre Jdanov, Rapport dAndre Jdanov sur la situation internationale (Paris: Imprimerie Marechal, 1947), pp. 5-7, 14, 21, 7, 26.

32. Malenkov, Le XXXII anniversaire de la grande revolution socialiste dOctobre (Moscow: Editions en langues etrangeres, 1950), p. 23.

33. Manifeste aux peuples, Revue mondiale de la Paix (Paris), Nov. 1950, 21:121--122.

34. James Klugmann, From Trotsky to Tito (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1951), p. 13.

35. Ibid. , p. 22.

36. Ibid. , p. 9.

37. Ibid. , p. 11.

38. Ibid. , p. 43.

39. Ibid. , p. 143.

40. Rapport: Le PCY dans la lutte pour la Yougoslavie nouvelle (Belgrade, 1948), pp. 94, 25.

41. Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 129.

42. Directives du CC, in Questions actuelles du socialisme (Paris: Agence Yougoslave dInformation, Jan.-Feb. 1952), 10:160, 161, 145.

43. Ibid. , p. 85.

44. Ibid. , Oct.-Nov. 1952, 14:2, 5, 18, 35--36, 30, 37, 44, 47.

45. Ibid. , p. 44.

46. The Times, 27 December 1950. In Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 111.

47. New York Herald Tribune, 26 June 1951. In Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 98.

48. Daily Mail, 31 August 1951. In Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 150.

49. Business Week, 12 April 1950. In Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 175.

50. Daily Telegraph, 12 December 1949. In Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 191.

51. The Times, 13 September 1949. In Klugmann, op. cit. , p. 194.

52. Stalin, Marxism and the National and Colonial Question (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1936), p. 168.

53. Ibid. , p. 153.

54. Ibid. , p. 300, n. 43.

55. Ibid. , pp. 79--80.

56. Ibid. , p. 178.

57. Ibid. , pp. 262--263.

58. Ibid. , pp. 267--268.

59. Alexander Uralov (Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov), op. cit. , p. 8.

60. Ibid. , pp. 38, 41.

61. Ibid. , p. 79.

62. Ibid. , p. 169.

63. Ibid. , p. 123.

64. Ibid. , pp. 144--145.

65. Ibid. , p. 158.

66. Ibid. , p. 237.

67. Ibid. , p. 240.

68. Ibid. , p. 242.

69. Ibid. , p. 245.

70. Tokaev, op. cit. , pp. 354--355.

71. Ibid. , pp. 358-359.

72. La Libre Belgique, 4 March 1949, p. 1; 6 March 1949, p. 1.

73. G. Malenkov, Report to the Nineteenth Party Congress on the Work of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U.(B.) (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1952), p. 126.

74. Stalin, Leninism: Selected Writings (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975), pp. 468--469.

75. Mao Tse-tung and Lin Pao, Post-Revolutionary Writings (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1972), p. 429.

76. Bill Bland, The "Doctors case" and the death of Stalin (London: The Stalin Society, October 1991), Report.

77. Thaddeus Wittlin, Commissar: The Life and Death of Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (New York: Macmillan, 1972), p. 354.

78. Ibid. , pp. 363--365.

79. Tokaev, op. cit. , p. 7.

80. Ibid. , p. 101.

81. Nikita Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers (London: Andre Deutsch, 1971), p. 313.

82. Ibid. , p. 311.

83. Ibid. , p. 250.

84. Chueva, op. cit. , p. 327.

85. Ibid. , p. 335.

86. Ibid. , p. 323.

87. Ibid. , p. 311.

88. Ibid. , p. 246.

89. Enver Hoxha, With Stalin: Memoirs (Toronto: Norman Bethune Institute, 1980), p. 31.

90. Malenkov, op. cit. , pp. 108--109.

91. Khrushchev, Special Report, op. cit. , p. S17.

92. Ibid. , p. S15.

93. Malenkov, op. cit. , pp. 113--116.

94. Ibid. , pp. 119--121.

95. Khrushchev, Central Committee Report, The Documentary Record of the 20th Communist Party Congress and its Aftermath (New York: Frederick A. Praeger), p. 58.

96. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , pp. S14--S15.

97. Malenkov, op. cit. , p. 76.

98. Ibid. , p. 124.

99. Ibid. , p. 122.

100. Ibid. , pp. 125--126.

101. Ibid. , pp. 126--127.

102. Ibid. , p. 128.

103. Ibid. , p. 127.

104. Khrushchev, Central Committee Report, op. cit. , p. 57.

105. Khrushchev, Secret Report, op. cit. , p. S63.

106. Ibid. , p. S49.

107. Stalin, Economic Problems of Socialism in the U.S.S.R., The Documentary Record of the 19th Communist Party Congress and the Reorganization After Stalins Death (New York: Frederick A. Praeger), p. 5.

108. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers, op. cit. , p.251.

109. S. Alliluyeva, p. 215; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 4.

110. Pravda, 13 January 1953, p. 4; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 18.

111. J. Ducoli, The Georgian Purges (1951--1953), Caucasian Review, vol. 6, pp. 55, 1958; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 11--13.

112. A. Mgdelaze, Report to Congress of Georgian Communist Party, Sept. 1952; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 24.

113. P. Deriabin, Watchdogs of Terror: Russian Bodyguards from the Tsars to the Commissars (1984), p. 321; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 24.

114. Deriabin, op. cit. , p. 209; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 27.

115. Deriabin, op. cit. , p. 300.

116. J. Lewis and P. Whitehead, Stalin: A Time for Judgment (London, 1990), p. 279; cited in Bland, op. cit. , p. 34.

117. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers, op. cit. , p. 324.

118. Ibid. , p. 331.

119. Wittlin, op. cit. , p. 388.

120. Bland, op. cit. , p. 46.

121. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers, op. cit. , p. 337.

122. Bland, op. cit. , pp. 55--57.

123. Ibid. , pp. 67--70.

124. Ibid. , p. 73.

125. Sergei Khrushchev, Khrushchev on Khrushchev: An Inside Account of the Man and His Era (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1990), p. 8.

126. Ibid. , p. 13.

127. Solzhenitsyn, Le chene et le veau; cited in Branko Lazitch, Le rapport Khrouchtchev et son histoire (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1976), p. 77.

128. Chueva, op. cit. , p. 350.

129. R. A. Medvedev and Zh. .A. Medvedev, op. cit. , p. 4.

130. A. I. Mikoyan, Discussion of Khrushchev--Moskatov Reports, 20th Communist Party Congress, op. cit. , p. 80.

131. Kozlov, Report on the Party Statutes, The Documentary Record of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962), p. 206.

132. Khrushchev, Central Committee Report, op. cit. , pp. 29, 35, 30, 38.

133. Khrushchev, Concluding Remarks 22nd Congress, op. cit. , p. 198.

134. Khrushchev, The Party Program, 22nd Congress, op. cit. , p. 15.

135. Commission of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U. (B.), editor. History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks): Short Course (Toronto: Francis White Publishers, 1939), p. 360.

136. Mao Tse-Tung, Stalin, Friend of the Chinese People, Works, vol. 2, p. 335.


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